Lectures in Management - Marketing - What is Marketing?
What is behind the notion of "marketing"? Most mistakenly identifies marketing with marketing and advertising. Therefore, many are surprised to learn that the most important element of marketing is not selling. Sales - only the tip of the iceberg of marketing, one of its many functions, and often not the most significant. If a market leader such a good job of marketing sections as identifying consumer needs, develop suitable products and establishing the appropriate price for them, the establishment of the system of distribution and effective stimulation, such goods will certainly easily.
One of the leading theorists on management, David Nepo, says it this way: "The purpose of marketing - do sales efforts unnecessary. His goal - so good to know and understand the customer that the product or service will definitely come last and sell themselves."
This does not mean that efforts to stimulate its sales and lose their meaning. It is rather that they become part of a larger "marketing mix", ie set of marketing tools that must harmoniously linked with each other in order to achieve maximum impact on the market.
Marketing - a human activity directed at satisfying needs and wants through exchange.
To illustrate this definition, consider the following concepts: needs, demands, requests, commodity, exchange, transaction and market.
People's needs are varied and complex. Here and basic physiological needs for food, clothing, warmth and safety; and social needs in spiritual intimacy, affection and influence; and personal needs for knowledge and self-expression. These needs are not created by the efforts of Madison Avenue, and are the initial components of human nature.
If the need is not satisfied, the person feels deprived and unhappy. The more means to him or that need, the more he is going through. Dissatisfied people will do one of two things: either will search for objects that can satisfy the need of, or attempt to silence her.
Requirements are expressed in objects that can satisfy the need in a way that is inherent in cultural patterns of the society. As the progressive development of society and the growing needs of its members. People faced with more and more objects, arouses their curiosity, interest and desire. Manufacturers for their part undertake targeted actions to stimulate the desire to possess goods. They are trying to form a connection between what they produce, and the needs of the people. This product is promoted as a means to satisfy one or several specific needs. The marketer does not create a need, it already exists.
People's needs are almost limitless, but the resources to meet them are limited. So that people will choose the products that will deliver the greatest satisfaction to him as part of his financial capabilities.
Human needs, the needs and demands suggest the existence of the goods to their satisfaction. Goods we define as follows.
Goods - everything that can satisfy a need or want and offer the market to attract attention, acquisition, use or consumption.
The fuller the relevant goods desires of the consumer, the manufacturer will achieve greater success. The term "product" is not limited to physical objects. Goods can be called everything that can be of service, ie meet the need. In addition to products and services, it may be the individual, places, organizations, activities and ideas. The consumer decides what kind of entertainment programs on television to see where to go on vacation, how to help organizations, which support the idea. And if the use of the term "goods" at times seems unnatural, it can be replaced by others - "satisfactory needs," "tool compensation" or "offer". All of these words have a certain value to the value of different persons.
Each party must have something that could provide value to the other side.
Each party must be able to communicate and deliver their goods.
Each party shall be entirely free to accept or reject the proposal on the other hand.
Each party must be sure expedient or desirable to deal with the other party.
These five conditions provide only potential exchange. But whether it will take depends on the agreement between the parties regarding its terms. If an agreement is reached, it can be concluded that as a result of the exchange, all parties benefit (or at least not suffer damage), since each of them was free to either reject or accept the offer.
If the exchange - the basic concept of marketing as a discipline, the basic unit of measurement in the field of marketing is a bargain.
Deal - commercial exchange of values between two parties.
The transaction is to be distinguished from a simple transfer. When transmitting party A gives B-side object X, did not give the return. Transfer regarding gifts, grants, fundraisers, and are a form of exchange.
Money market - another important market, satisfying human needs, which allows you to borrow, lend, save money and ensure their safety. Formed and market donators designed to meet the financial needs of non-profit organizations, so that they could continue their nepo getanswers.
Intermediary market - an enterprise, organizations and individuals who purchase goods and services for resale them to obtain a certain profit.
Market public institutions make public organizations that acquire goods and services for the performance of its functions.
The international market consists of all buyers of goods and services outside of the state, including separate individuals, manufacturers, resellers and government agencies.
If we consider the market as a collection of buyers, combined geographical location, the markets are the following:
World market (countries of the world).
Regional market (within the state).
The local market (within one or more areas of the state).
The term "market" leads us finally to the final concept of the cycle - "Marketing."
Marketing - is a human activity somehow relevant to the market.
Marketing - Work with the market for the implementation of exchanges, the purpose of which - the satisfaction of human needs and requirements. Thus, we return to our definition of marketing as a form of human activity directed at satisfying needs and wants through exchange.
The exchange process requires work. Anyone who wants to sell, you must search for buyers, identify their needs, design appropriate products, advance them to the market, store, transport, negotiate prices, etc. The major activities constitute marketing activities such as product development, research, establishing communication, the organization of distribution, pricing, service deployment service.
Although generally considered that marketing - the lot of sellers and buyers engaged in them. Housewives operates its own "marketing" when they are searching for the right products at the prices they are willing to pay. In search of a scarce commodity firms procurers have to seek out the sellers and offer attractive terms of the transaction.
A seller's market - is a market in which sellers have more power and where the most active "market makers" have to be buyers.
Buyer's market - is a market in which buyers have more power and where the most active "market makers" have to be sellers.